California has strong constitutional protections for religious freedom but does not have a state-level Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA). The state also has several cities that have decriminalized the use and possession of entheogens. However, psilocybin is still classified as a Schedule I controlled substance which poses legal challenges for the religious use of entheogens.


California Constitution

Article I, Section 4 of the California Constitution guarantees the free exercise and enjoyment of religion without discrimination or preference. It states, “Free exercise and enjoyment of religion without discrimination or preference are guaranteed. This liberty of conscience does not excuse acts that are licentious or inconsistent with the peace or safety of the State”​. This provision provides a strong foundation for the protection of religious practices, including those involving entheogens, provided they do not disrupt public peace or safety.


Federal Protections: Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA)

California residents are protected under the federal RFRA, which requires that any substantial burden on religious exercise must be justified by a compelling governmental interest and must be the least restrictive means of furthering that interest. The 2006 Supreme Court decision in Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal set a precedent for the use of Schedule I controlled substances in religious ceremonies under the federal RFRA, provided the practice is part of a sincere religious belief.


Decriminalization Efforts

Several cities in California have made significant strides toward decriminalizing entheogens. Notably:


  • Oakland and Santa Cruz have decriminalized the possession and use of entheogenic plants and fungi, including psilocybin mushrooms.


  • San Francisco also passed a resolution urging law enforcement to deprioritize the enforcement of laws against the use and possession of entheogens.


These local efforts reflect a growing recognition of the potential benefits of entheogens and provide some legal protection for their use in religious and personal contexts within those jurisdictions.


Practical Implications Religious practitioners in California considering the use of entheogens face significant legal risks due to the state and federal classification of psilocybin as a Schedule I substance. However, the strong constitutional protections and local decriminalization efforts offer potential defenses. Practitioners should be prepared to demonstrate the sincerity of their religious beliefs and the necessity of entheogens for their spiritual practices. It is advisable to seek legal counsel and maintain thorough documentation of religious practices to support any potential defense.



California Constitution: Article I, Section 4 – Declaration of Rights​ 


Napa Legal Institute: Faith & Freedom Index – California​.


Supreme Court Case: Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal (2006).


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